Point of Reference #4: the grandmother is part of a series of video interviews turned into video/sound compositions of important and iconic figures in my life and work. Constructed as a series of vignettes, these pieces capture a fragment of their character while focusing on one aspect of their life that reflects their being. In this vignette, my grandmother speaks about raising children, three of her own and three that she adopted, and how she managed to survive while going to school full time while raising the family. Her simple, yet stern solution, or the infamous slipper, became the iconic tool for which all of her children and grandchildren learned more than just their manners.